Useful Info
Pyruvate Metabolism   

Pyruvate sits at an intersection of key pathways of energy metabolism. It is the end product of glycolysis and the starting point for gluconeogenesis, and can be generated by transamination of alanine. It can be converted by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex to acetyl CoA which can enter the TCA cycle or serve as the starting point for the synthesis of long chain fatty acids, steroids, and ketone bodies. It also plays a central role in balancing the energy needs of various tissues in the body. Under conditions in which oxygen supply is limiting, (in exercising muscle) or in the absence of mitochondria, (in red blood cells), re-oxidation of NADH produced by glycolysis cannot be coupled to generation of ATP. Instead, its re-oxidation is coupled to the reduction of pyruvate to lactate. This lactate is released into the blood, and is taken up primarily by the liver, where it is oxidized to pyruvate and can be used for gluconeogenesis. Pyruvate participates in several key reactions and pathways. In glycolysis, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to pyruvate by pyruvate kinase. This reaction is strongly exergonic and irreversible. In gluconeogenesis pyruvate requires two enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase, to catalyze the reverse transformation of pyruvate to PEP. In fatty acid synthesis, pyruvate decarboxylation by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex produces acetyl-CoA. In gluconeogenesis, the carboxylation by pyruvate carboxylase produces oxaloacetate. The fate of pyruvate depends on the cell energy charge. In cells or tissues with a high energy charge pyruvate is directed toward gluconeogenesis, but when the energy charge is low pyruvate is preferentially oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the TCA cycle, with generation of 15 equivalents of ATP per pyruvate. The enzymatic activities of the TCA cycle are located in the mitochondrion. When transported into the mitochondrion, pyruvate encounters two principal metabolizing enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase (a gluconeogenic enzyme) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). With a high cell-energy charge, acetyl-CoA, is able allosterically to activate pyruvate carboxylase, directing pyruvate toward gluconeogenesis. When the energy charge is low CoA is not acylated, pyruvate carboxylase is inactive, and pyruvate is preferentially metabolized via the PDH complex and the enzymes of the TCA cycle to CO2 and H2O.


Current Treatment Strategies(IEM)   

There are a number of strategies available to treat inherited metabolic diseases and these are often related to whether the clinical symptoms are caused by accumulation or depletion.
1. Reducing Substrate Accumulation by manipulation of diet, chelationor inhibition of biosynthesis.
2. Reducing toxic metabolites by decreasing production, facilitating transport or promoting excretion
3. Enhancing residual activity by supraphysiologicaldoses of cofactors and their precursors
4. Replacement of the defective enzyme by the administration of exogenous enzyme (Enzyme Replacement Therapy, ERT) or by transplantation.
5. Supplementation of a depleted metabolite by diet or by medication.



Dr Archibald Edward Garrod

Gene&Gene Mutation

Metabolic Acidosis

Unusual Smell In Urine?

Body regulates thousands of metabolic reactions simultaneously

The Role of Neuroimaging in Diagnosis and Treatment of inborn errors of metabolism

During Gestation


Did You know?

Can you believe?

Blood Gases

What Is Cell ?


Metabolic Pathways


Few UseFul Marker In IEM


New therapies(IEM)



Nutritional treatment in IEM

Over the last 3 decades many new and effective therapies.....

Essential role of medical food for IEM

"Criterion for including a test in NBS Panel"

Benefit of newborn screening

Acute Encephalopathy

Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Infancy: A Guide to Diagnosis

Metabolism Summary

  • Copyright 2011, All Rights Reserved By: Merd India
Valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional Valid CSS!