Useful Info
Metabolism Summary   

 

 

 

A general overview of the major metabolic pathways 
 
Metabolism is the set of chemical rections that occur in a cell, which enable it to keep living, growing and dividing. Metabolic processes are usually classified as:
  • catabolism - obtaining energy and reducing power from nutrients.
  • anabolism - production of new cell components, usually through processes that require energy and reducing power obtained from nutrient catabolism.
    There is a very large number of metabolic pathways. In humans, the most important metabolic pathways are:
  • glycolysis - glucose oxidation in order to obtain ATP
  • citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) - acetyl-CoA oxidation in order to obtain GTP and valuable intermediates.
  • oxidative phosphorylation - disposal of the electrons released by glycolysis and citric acid cycle. Much of the energy released in this process can be stored as ATP.
  • pentose phosphate pathway - synthesis of pentoses and release of the reducing power needed for anabolic reactions.
  • urea cycle - disposal of NH4+ in less toxic forms
  • fatty acid β-oxidation - fatty acids breakdown into acetyl-CoA, to be used by the Krebs cycle.
  • gluconeogenesis - glucose synthesis from smaller percursors, to be used by the brain.
  • Source.http://www2.ufp.pt/~pedros/bq/integration.htm

Source.http://images.tutorvista.com/cms/images/44/steps-involved-in-lipid-metabolism1.png

 

2=A few of the metabolic pathways present in the cell

File:Metabolism scheme.GIF

SOURCE.http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/File:Metabolism_scheme.GIF

 

What Is Cell ?   

Cell: The basic structural and functional unit in people and all living things. Each cell is a small container of chemicals and water wrapped in a membrane.

Each cell in the human body -- there are 100 trillion cells in each of us -- contains the entire human genome, all the genetic information necessary to build a human being. This information is encoded within the cell nucleus in 6 billion base pairs, subunits of DNA, packaged in 23 pairs of chromosomes, one chromosome in each pair coming from each parent. Each of the 46 human chromosomes contains the DNA for thousands of individual genes, the units of heredity.

There are notable exceptions including the egg and sperm cells (each of which have only 23 chromosomes containing half the usual amount of DNA) and mature red blood cells (which no longer have a nucleus and so lack chromosomes and DNA).

source= http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2661

 

Dr Archibald Edward Garrod

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